بِسمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحْمٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيـمِ
In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.
In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.
Zakat in Quran is obligatory charity decreed upon Muslims.
Quran Al-Bakarah 2:43
وَأَقِيمُواْ ٱلصَّلٰوةَ وَآتُواْ ٱلزَّكَٰوةَ وَٱرْكَعُواْ مَعَ ٱلرَّٰكِعِينَ
And establish Salat and give zakah and bow with those who bow .
Zakat is mentioned in Quran next to Salat and is second most compulsory duty on a believer.
What is Zakat?
Zakat is due payment compulsory on a believer that have an income and must paid for fulfillment of commandment. Zakat is as important as Salat, as its mentioned next to Salat and should be established along with Salat which highlights the importance of Zakat.
What آتُوا الزَّكَاةَ Atoo-azakat Mean?
Quranic word آتُو Atoo literally means “Give/Donate” and word الزَّكَاةَ meaning “Purify” and the root word for zakat is زَكَّىٰ Zaki but in Quranic context literal translation of آتُوا الزَّكَاةَ is Donation for Purification. Quran is a detailed book and Quran 92:18 justifies the meaning of آتُوا الزَّكَاةَ in Detail.
Quran Al-Layl 92:18
الَّذِي يُؤْتِي مَالَهُ يَتَزَكَّىٰ
Who donates his wealth to purify himself
To Whom & How much Zakat should be paid?
Quran is a detailed booked explaining commandments of Allah in detail, If quran commands Zakat then questions regarding whom it is to be paid is answered and how much should be paid but must greedy people would of course over look the fact and come up with excuses.
Quran Al-Bakarah 2:215
يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ ۖ قُلْ مَا أَنفَقْتُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ
They ask you, [O Muhammad], what they should spend. Say, “Whatever you spend of good is [to be] for parents and relatives and orphans and the needy and the traveler. And whatever you do of good – indeed, Allah is Knowing of it.” .
As mention in the verse above amount of Zakat has no limit and Allah says pay خَيْرٍ Khair which means best of whatever you can do. verse also indicates whom it should be paid to clearly and recipients are parents, relatives, orphans, needy and the traveller. Allah does not put a restriction that the recipients be muslims or non muslims and can be paid to any of recipients listed in verse.
Again How much Zakat should be paid?
Quran Al-Bakarah 2:245
مَّن ذَا الَّذِي يُقْرِضُ اللَّـهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا فَيُضَاعِفَهُ لَهُ أَضْعَافًا كَثِيرَةً ۚ وَاللَّـهُ يَقْبِضُ وَيَبْسُطُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ
Who is it that would loan Allah a goodly loan so He may multiply it for him many times over? And it is Allah who withholds and grants abundance, and to Him you will be returned.
Zakat is also mentioned as قْرِضُ karz meaning due / loan, which we lend to Allah and Allah will multiply it for us and again when it comes to how much zakat is to be paid the amound is حَسَنًا فَيُضَ meaning Goodly loan or a Big due which of course will be multiplied & returned.
When Should Zakat be Paid?
Allah has not neglected any of the questions regarding the commandments and a person might get confused that when should zakat be paid? maybe once in my life? Twice? Annually? or whenever i feel like? .
Quran Al-Anam 6:141
وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنشَأَ جَنَّاتٍ مَّعْرُوشَاتٍ وَغَيْرَ مَعْرُوشَاتٍ وَالنَّخْلَ وَالزَّرْعَ مُخْتَلِفًا أُكُلُهُ وَالزَّيْتُونَ وَالرُّمَّانَ مُتَشَابِهًا وَغَيْرَ مُتَشَابِهٍ ۚ كُلُوا مِن ثَمَرِهِ إِذَا أَثْمَرَ وَآتُوا حَقَّهُ يَوْمَ حَصَادِهِ ۖ وَلَا تُسْرِفُوا ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ
And He it is who causes gardens to grow, [both] trellised and untrellised, and palm trees and crops of different [kinds of] food and olives and pomegranates, similar and dissimilar. Eat of [each of] its fruit when it yields and give its due [zakah] on the day of its harvest. And be not excessive. Indeed, He does not like those who commit excess.
When Zakat is to be paid is Highlighted bold in above verse, Zakat be paid on Day of harvest حَقَّهُ يَوْمَ حَصَادِهِ as some people get paid weekly or monthly and for a farmer is day of harvest when he makes a return from his months of investment and similar for the businessman.
Conclusion : Zakat is paid on day we get paid or make earning/profit.
Can the poor pay zakat?
Quran Al-Bakarah 2:280
وَإِن كَانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظِرَةٌ إِلَىٰ مَيْسَرَةٍ ۚ وَأَن تَصَدَّقُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
And if someone is in hardship, then [let there be] postponement until [a time of] ease. But if you give [from your right as] charity, then it is better for you, if you only knew .
Zakat is obligatory for all muslims and it can be postponed untill person is financially stable but its better if paid in hardship and financial struggle, as nothings wrong with paying a penny or a dollar just to fulfill the religious duty during hardship.
Zakat in Mainstream Islam
Concept of zakat in mainstream islam is not from the quran but invented by the greedy scholars for the greedy people which is to pay out 2.5% of your savings which you only have in Gold or Silver otherwise it does not apply on cash or hoarding of any valuable item. In mainstream islam your only eligible for Zakat if you have savings and can only be paid annually which is not really charity but nonsense & a silly excuse to keep hoarding wealth so in a sense they don’t practice charity at all as commanded in Glorious Quran.
Difference in Zakat and Sadaka
Zakat is obligatory charity and Sadaka is addition charity which is not compulsory and Sadakt can be paid to anyone who is not listed in Al-Bakarah 2:215 ( parents and relatives and orphans and the needy and the traveler ) for example the mosque and its expenses and helping people with their debt, spending in the cause of islam or supporting believers in their righteous work or an organization collecting wealth for the purpose of helping the needy is sadaka as defined in the following verse.
Quran At-Tawbah 9:60
إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ۖ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللَّـهِ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
Sadaka expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect and for bringing hearts together [for Islam] and for freeing captives [or slaves] and for those in debt and for the cause of Allah and for the [stranded] traveler – an obligation [imposed] by Allah . And Allah is Knowing and Wise.
Sadakat are for the rich and self sufficent and sadakat will save us from regret at time of death as mentioned.
Quran Al-Munafiqun 63:10
وَأَنفِقُوا مِن مَّا رَزَقْنَاكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ فَيَقُولَ رَبِّ لَوْلَا أَخَّرْتَنِي إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ فَأَصَّدَّقَ وَأَكُن مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ
And spend [in the way of Allah ] from what We have provided you before death approaches one of you and he says, “My Lord, if only You would delay me for a brief term so I would give charity and be among the righteous.”.
Something better than Sadaka?
Sadaka cannot necessarily be afforded by every muslim and is not obligatory as Zakat, Allah knows that not everyone can afford to do so Allah is advising something better than Sadaka in Glorious Quran.
Quran Al-Baqarah 2:263
قَوْلٌ مَّعْرُوفٌ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن صَدَقَةٍ يَتْبَعُهَا أَذًى ۗ وَاللَّـهُ غَنِيٌّ حَلِيمٌ
Kind speech and forgiveness are better than charity followed by injury. And Allah is Free of need and Forbearing. .
Kind Speech and Forgiveness after injury or abuse is better than Sadaka and affordable.
How much should we spend on our needs?
Allah has revealed a detailed book and not only Allah advice us how much we should donate to Allah قَرْضًا حَسَنًا (Massive Loan) but how much we should spend on our needs الْعَفْوَ meaning not beyond needs.
Quran Al-Baqarah 2:219
وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ قُلِ الْعَفْوَ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّـهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ
And they ask you what they should spend. Say, “The excess [beyond needs].” Thus Allah makes clear to you the verses [of revelation] that you might give thought.
When it comes to investment with Allah, Allah has set no limit as the return is unlimited and when it comes to expenditures for ourselves (Nafs) Allah says not beyond needs or too tight.
Quran Al-Isra 17:27
إِنَّ الْمُبَذِّرِينَ كَانُوا إِخْوَانَ الشَّيَاطِينِ ۖ وَكَانَ الشَّيْطَانُ لِرَبِّهِ كَفُورًا
Indeed, the wasteful are brothers of the devils, and ever has Satan been to his Lord ungrateful.
Quran Al-Isra 17:28
وَإِمَّا تُعْرِضَنَّ عَنْهُمُ ابْتِغَاءَ رَحْمَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكَ تَرْجُوهَا فَقُل لَّهُمْ قَوْلًا مَّيْسُورً
And if you [must] turn away from the needy awaiting mercy from your Lord which you expect, then speak to them a gentle word.
Quran Al-Isra 17:29
وَلَا تَجْعَلْ يَدَكَ مَغْلُولَةً إِلَىٰ عُنُقِكَ وَلَا تَبْسُطْهَا كُلَّ الْبَسْطِ فَتَقْعُدَ مَلُومًا مَّحْسُورًا
And do not make your hand [as] chained to your neck or extend it completely and [thereby] become blamed and insolvent.
Allah is clear not to be wasteful and help the poor and help them if you can afford to and not to turn him away just because of your love for hoarding wealth ( Chaining hands to neck ) and the help should not be beyond the needs of needy and if you cannot afford then speak words of kindness.